Is literary greatness still possible?

Popularność W.G. Sebalda ma swoje początki nie w Niemczech ani w ogóle w Europie, lecz za oceanem – dopiero po przełożeniu jego utworów na język angielski, zaczęło się w literackim świecie głośniej mówić o twórczości niemieckojęzycznego pisarza. Karierę Sebalda w Ameryce dodatkowo wzmocnił fakt, że w pierwszej kolejności ukazał się tam  zbiór opowiadań Wyjechali (The Emigrants) i odtąd przylgnęła do niego etykieta “pisarza Holokaustu” – a to temat wciąż mocno recypowany za ocenem. Sebald zdobył sobie w Ameryce uznanie wielu wybitnych osobowości ze świata literatury i sztuki (w tym obszarze warto wspomnieć choćby Patti Smith). Jedną z najbardziej znanych admiratorek i ambasadorek powieści Sebalda była Susan Sontag, która uważała, że jego dzieła są dowodem istnienia wielkiej literatury. W 2000 roku w Times Literary Supplement ukazał się esej pisarki w całości poświęcony  Sebaldowito świetne wprowadzenie do jego twórczości. Jak zawsze u Sontag: precyzyjnie, poetycko i z wyostrzonym analitycznym okiem.

Esej dotyczy trzech powieści Sebalda, które ukazały się w pierwszej połowie lat 90. (jeszcze przed powstaniem Austerlitza) – Wyjechali, Czuję. Zawrót głowy i Pierścienie Saturna. Sontag próbuje na ich podstawie wydobyć specyfikę i tematy pisarstwa Sebalda, a także odpowiedzieć na pytanie, skąd pochodzi tak ogromna siła oddziaływania jego utworów. Główny temat tych powieści, jak pisze Sontag, tworzą podróże spod znaku Saturna (symbolicznej figury melancholii). Warto wspomnieć, że jedna z książek Sontag – poświęcona m.in. Walterowi Benjaminowi, Eliasowi Canettiemu (skądinąd postaci ważnych także dla Sebalda) – nosi właśnie taki tytuł: Pod znakiem Saturna. „Podróżowanie otwiera umysł na grę skojarzeń; na ból (i erozję) pamięci”. I to właśnie świadomość samotnego narratora, zauważa Sontag, jest tak naprawdę głównym bohaterem tych tekstów, mimo że opowiadają – i czynią to znakomicie – losy innych postaci. Sontag pisze też sporo o przemieszaniu fikcji i faktów w sebaldowym świecie, przyznając że rzadko we współczesnej fikcji można znaleźć autora, który z taką precyzją – i ładunkiem emocji – oddaje to, co realne. Na samym końcu Sontag pochyla się nad konstrukcją narratora w Czuję. Zawrót głowy, pisząc, że jest to w gruncie rzeczy “autoportret umysłu” -umysłu niespokojnego, chronicznie niezadowolonego, umęcoznego, zmagającego się z halucynacjami i nawiedzanego przez uporczywe wspomnienia oraz widma przeszłości, umysłu w żałobie (a mind in mourning).
Ponieważ trudno dotrzeć do tekstu Sontag, wstawiam go w całości (pożyczając stąd). Tekst ukazał się także w niemieckim tłumaczeniu Sabine Huebner (Susan Sontag, Ein trauernder Geist, “Bogen 48: W.G. Sebald. Gespraech mit Lebenden und Toten”, Muenchen Wien 2000).

Susan Sontag
A Mind in Mourning

Is literary greatness still possible? Given the implacable devolution of literary ambition, and the concurrent ascendancy of the tepid, the glib, and the senselessly cruel as normative fictional subjects, what would a noble literary enterprise look like now? One of the few answers available to English-language readers is the work of W. G. Sebald.

Vertigo, the third of Sebald’s books to be translated into English, is how he began. It appeared in German in 1990, when its author was forty-six; three years later came The Emigrants; and two years after that The Rings of Saturn. When The Emigrants appeared in English in 1996, the acclaim bordered on awe. Here was a masterly writer, mature, autumnal even, in his persona and themes, who had delivered a book as exotic as it was irrefutable. The language was a wonder–delicate, dense, steeped in thinghood; but there were ample precedents of that in English. What seemed foreign as well as most persuasive was the preternatural authority of Sebald’s voice: its gravity, its sinuosity, its precision, its freedom from all-undermining or undignified self-consciousness or irony.

In W. G. Sebald’s books, a narrator who, as we are reminded occasionally, bears the name W. G. Sebald, travels about registering evidence of the mortality of nature, recoiling from the ravages of modernity, musing over the secrets of obscure lives. On some mission of investigation, triggered by a memory, or news from a world irretrievably lost, he remembers, evokes, hallucinates, grieves.

Is the narrator Sebald? Or a fictional character to whom the author has lent his name, and selected elements of his biography? Born in 1944, in a village in Germany he calls “W.” in his books (and the dust jacket identifies for us as Wertach im Allgau), settled in England in his early twenties, and a career academic currently teaching modern German literature at the University of East Anglia, the author includes a scattering of allusions to these bare facts and a few others, as well as, among other self-referring documents reproduced in his books, a grainy picture of himself posed in front of a massive Lebanese cedar in The Rings of Saturn and the photo on his new passport in Vertigo.

And yet these books ask, rightly, to be considered fiction. Fiction they are, not least because there is good reason to believe that much is invented or altered, just as, surely, some of what he relates surely did happen–names, places, dates, and all. Fiction and factuality are, of course, not opposed. one of the founding claims for the novel in English is that it is a true history. What makes a work fiction is not that the story is untrue–it may well be true, in part or in whole–but its use, or extension, of a variety of devices (including false and forged documents) which produce what literary theorists call “the effects of the real.” Sebald’s fictions–and their accompanying visual illustration–carry the effect of the real to a plangent extreme.

This “real” narrator is an exemplary fictional construction: the promeneur solitaire of many generations of romantic literature. A solitary, even when a companion is mentioned (the Clara of the opening paragraphs of The Emigrants), the narrator is ready to undertake journeys at whim, to follow some flare-up of curiosity about a life that has just ended (as, in The Emigrants, in the story of Paul, a beloved primary school teacher, which brings the narrator back for the first time to “the new Germany,” and of his Uncle Adelberth, which brings the narrator to America). Another motive for traveling is proposed in Vertigo and The Rings of Saturn, where it is clearer that the narrator is also a writer, with a writer’s restlessness and writer’s taste for isolation. Often the narrator begins to travel in the wake of some crisis. And usually the journey is a quest, even if the nature of that quest is not immediately apparent.

Here is the beginning of the second of the four narratives of Vertigo:

In October 1980 I traveled from England, where I had then been living for nearly twenty-five years in a country whihc was almost always under grey skies, to Vienna, hoping that a change of place would help me get over a particularly difficult period in my life. In Vienna, however, I found that the days proved inordinately long, now they were not taken up by my customary routine of writing and gardening tasks, and I literally didn’t know where to turn. Every morning I would set out and walk without aim or purpose through the streets of the inner city.

This long section, entitled “All’ estero” (Abroad), which takes the narrator from Vienna to various places in northern Italy, follows the opening chapter, a brilliant exercise in Brief-Life writing which recounts the biography of the much-traveled Stendhal, and is followed by a brief third chapter relating the Italian journey of another writer, “Dr. K,” to some of the sites of Sebald’s travels in Italy. The fourth, and last, chapter, as long as the second and complementary to it, is entitled “Il ritorno in patria” (The Return Home). The four narratives of Vertigo adumbrate all of Sebald’s major themes: journeys; the lives of writers, who are also travellers; being haunted and being light. And always, there are visions of destruction. In the first narrative, Stendhal dreams, while recovering from an illness, of the great fire of Moscow; and the last narrative ends with Sebald falling asleep over his Pepys and dreaming of London destroyed by the Great Fire.

The Emigrants uses this same four-part musical structure, in which the fourth narrative is longest and most powerful. Journeys of one kind or another are at the heart of all Sebald’s narratives: the narrator’s own peregrinations, and the lives, all in some way displaced, that the narrator evokes.

Compare the first sentence of The Rings of Saturn:

In August 1992, when the dog days were drawing to an end, I set off to walk the country the Suffolk, in the hope of dispelling the emptiness that takes hold of me whenever I have completed a long stint of work.

The whole of The Rings of Saturn is the account of this walking trip undertaken to dispel this emptiness. For whereas the traditional tour brought one close to nature, here it measures the degree of devastation, and the opening of the book tells us that the narrator was so overcome by “the traces of destruction” he encountered that, a year to the day after beginning his tour, he was taken to a hospital in Norwich “in a state of almost total immobility.”

Travels under the sign of Saturn, the emblem of melancholy, are the subject of all three books Sebald wrote in the first half of the 1990s. Destruction is his master theme: of nature (the lament for the trees destroyed by Dutch elm disease and those destroyed in the hurricane of 1987 in the next-to-last section of The Rings of Saturn); of cities; of ways of life. The Emigrants tells of a trip to Deauville in 1991, in search perhaps of “some remnants of the past,” which confirms that “the once legendary resort, like everywhere else that one visits now, regardless of the country of continent, was hopelessly run down and ruined by traffic, shops and boutiques, and the insatiable urge for destruction.” And the return home, in the fourth narrative of Vertigo, to W., which the narrator says he had not revisited since his childhood, is an extended recherche du temps perdu.

The climax of The Emigrants, four stories about people who have left their native lands, is the heartrending evocation–purportedly a memoir in a manuscript–of an idyllic German-Jewish childhood. The narrator goes on to describe his decision to visit the town, Kissingen, where this life had been lived, to see what traces of it remained. Because it was The Emigrants that launched Sebald in English, and because the subject of the last narrative, a famous painter given the name Max Ferber, is a German Jew sent out of Nazi Germany as a child to safety in England–his mother, who perished in the camps with his father, being the author of the memoir–the book was routinely labeled by most of the reviewers (especially, but not only, in America) as an example of Holocaust literature. Ending a book of lament with the ultimate subject of lament, The Emigrants may have set up some of Sebald’s admirers for a disappointment with the work that followed it in translation, The Rings of Saturn.This book is not divided into distinct narratives but consists of a chain or progress of stories: one story leads to another. In The Rings of Saturn, the well-stocked mind speculates whether Sir Thomas Browne, visiting Holland, was present at an anatomy lesson depicted by Rembrandt; remembers a romantic interlude, during his English exile, in the life of Chateaubriand; recalls Roger Casement’s noble efforts to publicize the infamies of Leopold’s rule in Congo; and retells the childhood in exile and early adventures at sea of Joseph Conrad–these stories, and many others. With its cavalcade of erudite and curious anecdotes, and its tender encouters with bookish people (two lecturers on French literature, one of them a Flaubert scholar; the translator and poet Michael Hambuger), The Rings of Saturn could seem–after the high excruciation of The Emigrants–merely “literary.”

It would still be a pity if the expectations about Sebald’s work created by The Emigrants also influenced the reception of Vertigo, which makes still clearer the nature of his morally accelerated travel narratives–history minded in their obsessions; fictional in their reach. Travel frees the mind for the play of associations; for the afflictions (and erosions) of memory; for the savoring of solitude. The awareness of the solitary narrator is the true protagonist of Sebald’s books, even when it is doing one of the things it does best: recounting, summing up, the lives of others.

Vertigo is the book in which the narrator’s English life is least in evidence. And, ven more than the two succeeding books, this is a self-portrait of a mind: a restless, chronically dissatisfied mind; a harrowed mind; a mind prone to hallucinations. Walking in Vienna, he thinks he recognizes the poet Dante, banished from his hometown on pain of being burned at the stake. Sitting on the rear bunch of a vaporetto in Venice, he sees Ludwig II of Bavaria; riding on a bus along the shore of Lake Grada toward Riva, he sees an adolescent boy who looks exactly like Kafka. This narrator who defines himself as a foreigner–overhearing the babble of some German tourists in a hotel, he wishes he did not understand them; “that is, that he were the citizen of a better country, or of no country at all”–is also a mind in mourning. At one moment, the narrator says he does not know whether he is still in the land of the living or already somewhere else.

In fact, he is both: both alive and, if his imagination is the guide, posthumous. A journey is often a revisiting. It is the return to a place for some unfinished business, to retrace a memory, to repeat (or complete) an experience; to offer oneself up–as in the fourth narrative of The Emigrants–to the final, most devastating revelations. These heroic acts of remembering and retracing bring with them a price. Part of the power of Vertigo is that it dwells more on the cost of this effort. “Vertigo,” the word used to translate the playful German title, Schwindel. Gefuhle (roughly: Giddiness. Feeling), hardly suggests all the kinds of panic and torpor and disorientation described in the book. IN Vertigo, he relates how, after arriving in Vienna, he walked so far that, he discovered returning to the hotel, his shoes had fallen apart. In The Rings of Saturn and, above all, in The Emigrants, the mind is less focussed on itself; the narrator is more elusive. More than the later books, Vertigo is about the narrator’s own afflicted consciousness. But the laconically evoked mental distress that edges the narrator’s calm , knowledgable awareness is never solipsistic, as in the literature of lesser concerns.

What anchors the unstable consciousness of the narrator is the spaciousness and acuity of the details. As travel is the generative principle of mental activity in Sebald’s books, moving through space gives a kinetic rush to his marvelous descriptions, especially of the landscapes. This is a propelled narrator.

Where has one heard in English a voice of such confidence and precision, so direct in its expression of feeling, yet so respectfully devoted to “the real”? D. H. Lawrence may come to mind, and the Naipaul of The Enigma of Arrival. But they have little of the passionate bleakness of Sebald’s voice. For this one must look to a German genealogy. Jean Paul, Franz Grillparzer, Adalbert Stifter, Robert Walser, the Hoffmansthal of “The Lord Chandos Letter,” Thomas Bernhard are a few of the affiliations of this contemporary master of the literature of lament and of mental restlessness. The consensus about English literature for most of the past century has decreed the relentlessly elegiac and lyrical to be inappropriate for fiction, overblown, prententious. (Even so great a novel, and exception, as Virginia Woolf’s The Waves has not escaped these strictures.) Postwar German literature, mindful of how congenial the grandiosity of past art and literature, particularly that of German romanticism, proved to the work of totalitarian mythmaking, has been suspicious of anything like the romantic or nostalgic relation to the past. But then only a German writer permanently domiciled abroad, in the precincts of a literature with a modern predilection for the anti-sublime, could indulge in so convincing a noble tone.

Besides the narrator’s moral fervency and gifts of compassion (here he parts company with Bernhard), what keeps this writing always fresh, never merely rhetorical, is the saturated naming and visualizing in words; that, and the ever-surprising device of pictorial illustration. Pictures of train tickets or a torn-out leaf from a pocket diary, drawings, a calling card, newspaper clippings, a detail from a painting, and, of course, photographs have the charm and, in many instances, the imperfections of relics. Thus, in Vertigo, at one moment the narrator loses his passport; or rather, his hotel loses it for him. And here is document made out for the police Riva, with–a touch of mystery–the G in W.G. Sebald inked out. And the new passport, with the photograph issued by the German consulate in Milan. (Yes, this professional foreigner travels on a German passport–at least he did in 1987.) In The Emigrants these visual documents seem talismanic. It seems likely that not all of them are genuine. In The Rings of Saturn they seem, less interestingly, merely illustrative. If the narrator speaks of Swinburne, there is a small portrait of Swinburne set in the middle of the page; if relating a visit to cemetary in Suffolk, where his attention is captured by a funerary monument to a woman who died in 1799, which he describes in detail, from fulsome epitaph to the holes bored in the stone on the upper edges of the four sides, we are given a blurry little photograph of the tomb, again in the middle of the page.

In Vertigo the documents have a more poignant message. They say–It’s true, what I’ve been telling you–which is hardly what a reader of fiction normally demands. To offer evidence at all is to endow what has been described by words with a mysterious surplus of pathos. The photographs and other relics reproduced on the page become an exquisite index of the pastness of the past.

Sometimes they seem like squiggles in Tristram Shandy; the author is being intimate with us. At other moments, these insistently proffered visual relics seems an insolent challenge to the sufficiency of the verbal. And yet, as Sebald writes in The Rings of Saturn, describing a favourite haunt, the Sailors’ Reading Room in Southwold, where he over pored over entries from the log of a patrol ship anchored off the pier during the autumn of 1914, “Every time I decipher one of these entries I am astounded that a trail that has long since vanished from the air or the water remains visible here on the paper.” And, he continues, closing the marbled cover of the logbook, he pondered “the mysterious survival of the written word.”

Susan Sontag, A Mind in Mourning, “Times Literary Supplement”, 25.02.2000.

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